n been presented as a rare success story. Elsewhere Egypt sank into an army dictatorship, Syria, Libya and Yemen into bloody civil war.
Akin to a very slow moving of tectonic plates that never produces something as dramatic as a volcanic eruption or a tsunami, North African countries are undergoing a slow process of strengthening their national sovereignty and diversifying their security and economic partners.
It’s a truism that Europe is unstable if its North African neighbours are unstable. That being so, it should be of some concern to EU leaders that, on the bloc’s south Mediterranean border, Tunisia’s 10-year-old democracy appears to be on life support.
Faced with this situation, the discredit that afflicts the partisan system and specific segments of civil society and presenting for the majority of them the specificity of being linked to annuity interests is not specific to Algeria.
The Art of Losing is a visceral book. It does not shy away from writing history in shades of gray, nor does it glamorize those who fought for Algerian independence. The book begins as the FLN (National Liberation Front) is rising in order to drive the French out of Algeria.
On November 1, Algerians voted in a referendum for a series of constitutional amendments proposed by the government. The referendum was a nonevent because of the low participation level. This came at a time when the population had been demanding a political transition in Algeria, through a popular protest movement, the Hirak, that began in February 2019.